4.4 Terms and Definitions

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

4.4.1 implementation-approximated

an implementation-approximated facility is defined in whole or in part by an external source but has a recommended, ideal behaviour in this specification

4.4.2 implementation-defined

an implementation-defined facility is defined in whole or in part by an external source to this specification

4.4.3 host-defined

same as implementation-defined

Note

Editorially, see clause 4.2.

4.4.4 type

set of data values as defined in clause 6

4.4.5 primitive value

member of one of the types Undefined, Null, Boolean, Number, BigInt, Symbol, or String as defined in clause 6

Note

A primitive value is a datum that is represented directly at the lowest level of the language implementation.

4.4.6 object

member of the type Object

Note

An object is a collection of properties and has a single prototype object. The prototype may be the null value.

4.4.7 constructor

function object that creates and initializes objects

Note

The value of a constructor's "prototype" property is a prototype object that is used to implement inheritance and shared properties.

4.4.8 prototype

object that provides shared properties for other objects

Note

When a constructor creates an object, that object implicitly references the constructor's "prototype" property for the purpose of resolving property references. The constructor's "prototype" property can be referenced by the program expression constructor.prototype, and properties added to an object's prototype are shared, through inheritance, by all objects sharing the prototype. Alternatively, a new object may be created with an explicitly specified prototype by using the Object.create built-in function.

4.4.9 ordinary object

object that has the default behaviour for the essential internal methods that must be supported by all objects

4.4.10 exotic object

object that does not have the default behaviour for one or more of the essential internal methods

Note

Any object that is not an ordinary object is an exotic object.

4.4.11 standard object

object whose semantics are defined by this specification

4.4.12 built-in object

object specified and supplied by an ECMAScript implementation

Note

Standard built-in objects are defined in this specification. An ECMAScript implementation may specify and supply additional kinds of built-in objects. A built-in constructor is a built-in object that is also a constructor.

4.4.13 undefined value

primitive value used when a variable has not been assigned a value

4.4.14 Undefined type

type whose sole value is the undefined value

4.4.15 null value

primitive value that represents the intentional absence of any object value

4.4.16 Null type

type whose sole value is the null value

4.4.17 Boolean value

member of the Boolean type

Note

There are only two Boolean values, true and false.

4.4.18 Boolean type

type consisting of the primitive values true and false

4.4.19 Boolean object

member of the Object type that is an instance of the standard built-in Boolean constructor

Note

A Boolean object is created by using the Boolean constructor in a new expression, supplying a Boolean value as an argument. The resulting object has an internal slot whose value is the Boolean value. A Boolean object can be coerced to a Boolean value.

4.4.20 String value

primitive value that is a finite ordered sequence of zero or more 16-bit unsigned integer values

Note

A String value is a member of the String type. Each integer value in the sequence usually represents a single 16-bit unit of UTF-16 text. However, ECMAScript does not place any restrictions or requirements on the values except that they must be 16-bit unsigned integers.

4.4.21 String type

set of all possible String values

4.4.22 String object

member of the Object type that is an instance of the standard built-in String constructor

Note

A String object is created by using the String constructor in a new expression, supplying a String value as an argument. The resulting object has an internal slot whose value is the String value. A String object can be coerced to a String value by calling the String constructor as a function (22.1.1.1).

4.4.23 Number value

primitive value corresponding to a double-precision 64-bit binary format IEEE 754-2019 value

Note

A Number value is a member of the Number type and is a direct representation of a number.

4.4.24 Number type

set of all possible Number values including the special “Not-a-Number” (NaN) value, positive infinity, and negative infinity

4.4.25 Number object

member of the Object type that is an instance of the standard built-in Number constructor

Note

A Number object is created by using the Number constructor in a new expression, supplying a Number value as an argument. The resulting object has an internal slot whose value is the Number value. A Number object can be coerced to a Number value by calling the Number constructor as a function (21.1.1.1).

4.4.26 Infinity

Number value that is the positive infinite Number value

4.4.27 NaN

Number value that is an IEEE 754-2019 “Not-a-Number” value

4.4.28 BigInt value

primitive value corresponding to an arbitrary-precision integer value

4.4.29 BigInt type

set of all possible BigInt values

4.4.30 BigInt object

member of the Object type that is an instance of the standard built-in BigInt constructor

4.4.31 Symbol value

primitive value that represents a unique, non-String Object property key

4.4.32 Symbol type

set of all possible Symbol values

4.4.33 Symbol object

member of the Object type that is an instance of the standard built-in Symbol constructor

4.4.34 function

member of the Object type that may be invoked as a subroutine

Note

In addition to its properties, a function contains executable code and state that determine how it behaves when invoked. A function's code may or may not be written in ECMAScript.

4.4.35 built-in function

built-in object that is a function

Note

Examples of built-in functions include parseInt and Math.exp. A host or implementation may provide additional built-in functions that are not described in this specification.

4.4.36 property

part of an object that associates a key (either a String value or a Symbol value) and a value

Note

Depending upon the form of the property the value may be represented either directly as a data value (a primitive value, an object, or a function object) or indirectly by a pair of accessor functions.

4.4.37 method

function that is the value of a property

Note

When a function is called as a method of an object, the object is passed to the function as its this value.

4.4.38 built-in method

method that is a built-in function

Note

Standard built-in methods are defined in this specification. A host or implementation may provide additional built-in methods that are not described in this specification.

4.4.39 attribute

internal value that defines some characteristic of a property

4.4.40 own property

property that is directly contained by its object

4.4.41 inherited property

property of an object that is not an own property but is a property (either own or inherited) of the object's prototype