ECMAScript® 2024 Language Specification

Draft ECMA-262 / February 15, 2024

11.2 Types of Source Code

There are four types of ECMAScript code:

Note 1

Function code is generally provided as the bodies of Function Definitions (15.2), Arrow Function Definitions (15.3), Method Definitions (15.4), Generator Function Definitions (15.5), Async Function Definitions (15.8), Async Generator Function Definitions (15.6), and Async Arrow Functions (15.9). Function code is also derived from the arguments to the Function constructor (, the GeneratorFunction constructor (, and the AsyncFunction constructor (

Note 2

The practical effect of including the BindingIdentifier in function code is that the Early Errors for strict mode code are applied to a BindingIdentifier that is the name of a function whose body contains a "use strict" directive, even if the surrounding code is not strict mode code.

11.2.1 Directive Prologues and the Use Strict Directive

A Directive Prologue is the longest sequence of ExpressionStatements occurring as the initial StatementListItems or ModuleItems of a FunctionBody, a ScriptBody, or a ModuleBody and where each ExpressionStatement in the sequence consists entirely of a StringLiteral token followed by a semicolon. The semicolon may appear explicitly or may be inserted by automatic semicolon insertion (12.10). A Directive Prologue may be an empty sequence.

A Use Strict Directive is an ExpressionStatement in a Directive Prologue whose StringLiteral is either of the exact code point sequences "use strict" or 'use strict'. A Use Strict Directive may not contain an EscapeSequence or LineContinuation.

A Directive Prologue may contain more than one Use Strict Directive. However, an implementation may issue a warning if this occurs.


The ExpressionStatements of a Directive Prologue are evaluated normally during evaluation of the containing production. Implementations may define implementation specific meanings for ExpressionStatements which are not a Use Strict Directive and which occur in a Directive Prologue. If an appropriate notification mechanism exists, an implementation should issue a warning if it encounters in a Directive Prologue an ExpressionStatement that is not a Use Strict Directive and which does not have a meaning defined by the implementation.

11.2.2 Strict Mode Code

An ECMAScript syntactic unit may be processed using either unrestricted or strict mode syntax and semantics (4.3.2). Code is interpreted as strict mode code in the following situations:

ECMAScript code that is not strict mode code is called non-strict code.

11.2.3 Non-ECMAScript Functions

An ECMAScript implementation may support the evaluation of function exotic objects whose evaluative behaviour is expressed in some host-defined form of executable code other than ECMAScript source text. Whether a function object is defined within ECMAScript code or is a built-in function is not observable from the perspective of ECMAScript code that calls or is called by such a function object.